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THE

LIFE AND TIMES

SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON, BART.,

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WILLIAM L. STONE.

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VOL. I.

ALBANY :

J. MUNSELL, 78 STATE STREET

1865.

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Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1864, By William L. Stone,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York.

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TO

THE MEMORY

LATE WILLIAM L. STONE, ESQ.

NEW YORK CITY,

THIS WORK IS AFFECTIONATELY INSCRIBED, BY HIS SON,

THE AUTHOR.

PREFACE

It may not be generally known that my father, the late William L. Stone, Esq., commenced a history of the Life and Times of Sir William Johnson, Bart. He had employed several years in collecting the ma- terials for this work, and had written the first seven chapters of it, when death cut short his labors in 1844. Esteeming it a sacred duty, I have completed the work ; and in so doing, have endeavored to carry out, as far as possible, his original design. The result is before the reader.

Perhaps the character of no man prominent in our colonial history has been less understood, and less fairly judged, than that of Sir William Johnson, Bart. His death occurred just on the eve of the Revolution- ary war ; and the troublous times which followed, and the immediate removal of his private papers, by his son, Sir John Johnson, into Canada, prevented any trustworthy estimate either of the man or of his ser- vices. As a natural consequence, the innumerable wild and improbable traditions afloat concerning him, have been eagerly seized and believed as veritable history. It was therefore evident, that until access wuld be had to his papers and private correspondence,

VI PllEFACE.

it would be impossible to prepare a faithful and accu- rate biography of him. After years of search, mv father procured from the Johnson family in Eng- land, and from various other sources, a large portion of Sir William's manuscripts, which, with the collec- tion of the Johnson MSS. presented to the New York State Library by General John Tayler Cooper, amounts to more than seven thousand letters and documents. Although many letters are evidently lost, yet enough remain to answer the purpose of the present work ; while the original records of Indian treaties and con- ferences, of which nearly all are in existence, afford a sure test of the accuracy of their relation.

Of this large collection, I have read and carefully compared each letter and document ; and throughout the work have made abundant reference to authorities, in order that whoever desires may avail himself of the same sources of information.

To Hon. Jared Sparks of Cambridge, Hon. George Bancroft of New York, Francis Parkman, Esq., of Boston, Professor Robinson P. Dunn of Brown Univer- sity, and Edward F. De Lancey, Esq., of New York, I am indebted for counsel and material aid. My thanks are also due to Anthony Lamb, Esq., of Cambridge, Doctor O'Callaghan of Albany, Dr. R. L. Allen, Hon. Judge Hay, and Daniel Sheppard, Esq. of Saratoga Springs, for valuable suggestions. Nor must I forget to make special mention of the kindness of the Regents and Librarians of the New York State University and

PREFACE. Vll

Library, in affording me every facility for examining the books and original documents under their control. To Thomas Simons, Esq., of Albany, and Elnathan Judson, Esq., of New York, I am truly grateful for assistance in copying many pages of manuscript.

In conclusion I may add, that in the preparation of this work, I have made no statement, and drawn no inference, that I did not conscientiously believe was fully warranted by the original authorities to which I have had immediate access.

WILLIAM L. STONE.

Saratoga Springs, January 1st, 1865.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

1534_1741.

Plan of the present work, 9 Success of the French in winning the con- fidence of the Indians ; one exception to this success, 10 Inconsidera- ble attention paid to the Five Nations by the first three English governors, 11 Enterprise of the Jesuit missionaries during the peace of 1667, 12 Efforts of Governor Dongan to thwart the influence of the French, 14 Convention of the Five Nations at Albany in 1684, 15 Success of Dongan's efforts, 16 Neglect of Indian affairs in the colony of New York during the Leisleriau administration, 17 Count Frontenac vainly attempts to detach the Confederates from the English interest, 18 Defeat of De Calliers, Governor of Montreal, by Major Peter Schuyler, 19 Colonel Fletcher succeeds Ingoldsby as governor. Iugoldsby holds a council with the Five Nations at Albany, in 1692, 20 Governor Fletcher takes Major Schuyler into his councils, 20 Count Frontenac captures two of the Mohawk castles, 21 Schuyler takes the field in pursuit. The purpose of the Oneidas to make peace with the French frustrated by Governor Fletcher, who calls a council of the Confederacy in July, 1693, 22 Count Frontenac makes another effort to subjugate the Five Nations, 23 The Earl of Bellamont succeeds Governor Fletcher, 24 Colonel Schuyler visits England in 1710 with five Iroquois chiefs, 26 Senecas prevented from turning their arms against the English by the peace of Utrecht in 1713, 27 The Confederates meditate hostilities against the Catawbas and Cherokees. Numerical strength of the Tuscaroras, 28 They are taken into the Iroquois Confederacy, which is henceforth known as the Six Nations, 29 General Hunter goes back to England, leaving Schuyler at the head of the colonial administration. The latter holds a treaty with the Six Nations, 29 Failure to expel the Jesuit emissary, Joncaire, from the Senecas, 30 William Burnet takes the reins of govern- ment in 1720. Endeavors to break up the Indian trade between Albany and Montreal, 30 Passage of an act for that purpose, 31 Trading post established at Oswego in 1722. Beneficial effects of Burnet's policy, 31 The establishment of an English post at Oswego, a source of great dis- pleasure to the French. Mr. Burnet meets the Confederates at Albany in 1727, 32 Mr. Montgomery succeeds Mr. Burnet in the government, 33 Revival of the trade between Albany and Montreal, 84 Death of Montgomery. Rip Van Dam succeeds him for a short period, 34 Stormy administration of Governor Cosby, 35 The Six Nations again resume hostilities against the southern Indians. The latter are defeated with the loss of twelve hundred braves, 35 George Clarke, after a brief struggle with Rip Van Dam, is commissioned lieutenant governor, 36^- Recommends to the assembly various important measures, 87 The elec- tion between Adolphe Pbilipse and Gerrit Van Horn contested. Eloquence of Mr. Smith on the occasion, 39 Increased political excite- ment during the years 1738 1739. Reasons for it, 41 Demand for a per-

VI CONTENTS.

manent supply bill. Dissolution of the assembly. Temper of the new onej 43 The governor yields to the assembly, 44 Mr. Clarke complains bitterly of the continued encroachments on the crown by the people, 45 The assembly decline making an appropriation for rebuilding the chapel among the Mohawks, 47 War declared against Spain, 47 Grand council of the Confederacy held at Albany by the lieutenant governor in 1741. Satisfactory result, 51 The famous negro plot. Incidents connected with it, 52.

CHAPTER II. 1742—1744. Prominence of Sir William Johnson in the colonial annals of the United States. His life and character hitherto but imperfectly understood, 56 Family and descent. His uncle Sir Peter Warren, 57 Marriage of Sir Peter Warren. Birth of Sir William Johnson, 59 Arrival in America, 60 Takes charge of his uncle's estate in the Mohawk valley, and keeps a country store. Means of both uncle and nephew, at this time, small? 60 Receives advice from his uncle, 61 His style of living. Description of his person. His success in winning the confidence and affection of the Mohawks, 64 Proposes to erect a saw mill. His education, 65 Difficulty in fixing the exact date of his marriage. Character of his wife, Catharine Weisenberg, 66 the Six Nations in 1742, send a large delega- tion to Philadelphia. Its object, 66 Proceedings of the council, 68 Tact of Lieutenant Governor Thomas, 69 Interesting historical incident during the sitting of the council, 71 Complaint made by the Indians against the governor and people of Maryland. Misunderstood on the part of Virginia, 73 A party of Indians invade the county of Augusta, and kill several Virginians. Correspondence between Lieutenant Governor Gooch and Lieutenant Governor Clarke in relation to it, 73 Jacobus Bleecker sent to Onondaga by the Indian commissioners, 74 Another embassy sent to Onondaga. Result of these missions, 76 Arrival of Admiral George Clinton as the successor of Lieutenant Governor Clarke, 77 Opening speech of the new governor probably moulded by Chief Justice De Lancey. Tone of the speech, 79 Sketch of Chief Justice De Lancey, 59 De Lancey, in behalf of the assembly, draws up an humble address, 80 The governor signs all the bills pre- sented to him, 81 Removal of Mr. Johnson from the south to the north side of the Mohawk. Opens a correspondence on his own account with the opulent house of Sir William Baker & Co., London. Grows in the public estimation, 81 Lays the foundation of his future prosperity on the basis of honorable dealing, 82 The government of New York authorized to issue letters of marque against Spain, 82 Activity of Captain Warren at sea. Captures a privateer and is promoted, 86 Clinton communicates to the assembly advices of the intended invasion of England by "a Popish Pretender," 87 Holds a conference with the Six Nations at Albany, 88. Expresses apprehensions for the post at Oswego, 89 Lays before his council a communication from the commandant at Oswego, in relation to the designs of the French against that post, 90 Grand Indian council at Lancaster in 1744. Its proceedings in detail, 91 109.

CHAPTER III. 1744—1745. Repose of the colonies under the administration of Sir Robert Walpole, broken by the declaration of war against France. Attempts of the French upon Acadia and Placentia, 110 Declaration of hostilities announced to the general assembly by Clinton. Strong measures urged for the protection of the colony and city of New York, 111. The build- ing of a strong fort in the vicinity of Crown Point recommended, 112 Cowardly retreat of the English traders from Oswego. The house pledge

CONTENTS. Vll

the ways and means for putting the colony in a posture of defence, 113 The Caughnawagas take up the hatchet against the English, 114 Special allowances voted for the defence of Albany and Schenectady, 115 The French again active in their endeavors to win the Six Nations from the English, 116 Mr. Bleecker is despatched into the Seneca country. Returns and reports favorably. Another report from a French deserter, 117 Arrest and discharge of David Leisberger and Christian Frederick Post. Governor Shirley proposes the capture of Louisburg, 118 Description of the harbor and defences of Louisburg, 119. Shirley com- municates his plan to the ministry, 120 Circular letters sent to the several colonial governors, 122 Lukewarm reception of the scheme by New York. Its cause, 122 Conduct of the assembly, and its dissolution .by the governor, 122 128 Preparations of Shirley for the capture of Cape Breton, 129 The command of the land forces given to Colonel William Pepperell, 130 Circumstances which favored the undertaking, 132 Unfitness of Shirley to direct the conduct of the expedition, 133 Commodore Warren assumes command of the naval forces, 136 Progress of the seige, 138 Success of Warren in cruizing off the harbor, 142 Surrender of the city, 14(5 The Mermaid despatched to England with the tidings. Effect of the conquest in Europe and America, 148 Honor- able rewards to the master spirits of the expedition, 149 Unwillingness of the parent government to reimburse the colonies for their expenses, 150 Efforts to detract from the just fame of the Provincials defeated, 151 Discussion respecting the relative merits of Pepperell and Warren, 156.

CHAPTER IV.

1745—1746. David Jones of Queens county, elected speaker of the new assembly, 157 Clinton urges upon the assembly the importance of reinforcing the forces of Pepperell and Warren. Doth branches of the assembly respond cordially. Indian relations of the colony again critical, 158 Dissatis- faction among the Six Nations. Examination of John Henry Lydius, 159 Animosity between the Mohawks and the people of Albany. Conrad Weiser sent on a friendly tour among the Six Nations, 160 Reception of Weiser. Accusations against the Albanians by the Con- federates, 161 The commissioners of Indian affairs announce the approach of scalping parties of Canadian Indians. Barbarities of these Indians on the frontier of New Hampshire, 162 Attention of the assem- bly called to these outrages. A general council with the Indians recom- mended, 163 Proceedings of the council. Speech of Ilendrik, 164 Suspicions of the Massachusetts commissioners, 170 Clinton communi- cates the result of the council to the assembly in a special message, 172 Burning by the French and Indians of the settlement at Saratoga, 173 Destruction of the village of Hoosick, 174 Governor Clinton reproves the assembly for its indifference, 175 Communication from Colonel Philip Schuyler laid before the privy council. Dissatisfaction at the removal of the local militia from the city, 176 Prospect of a gloomy winter. Exciting rumors, 177 Clinton asks for an appropriation to build a stone fort at the great carrying place between Hudson River and Lake Champlain, 178 Doubtful position assumed by the Confederacy, 179. The importance of an alliance with New England for mutual protection appreciated. Commissioners appointed for that purpose, 180 The ques- tion of parliamentary law and prerogative before the council and assem- bly, 181 The assembly driven from the city by the small pox, 182 Dis- cussion of the revenue bill by the council and assembly, 183 The victory with the representatives of the people, 185 Resolution adopted directing the erection of six strong block-houses. Appropriations for other import- ant objects, 185 Clinton again asks for reinforcements for Pepperell

Vlll CONTENTS.

and Warren, and is refused. Reluctance of the assembly to cooperate with the New England colonies not easily explained, 186.

CHAPTER V.

1746. Commencement of the brilliant public career of Sir William Johnson. He erects a valuable flouring mill. Builds an elegant stone mansion, and calls it Mount Johnson. Becomes known to Governor Clinton, probably through the influence of Chief Justice Do Lancey, 187 His commercial affairs widely extended. Is engaged in shipping furs to London. Is commissioned a justice of the peace for Albany county. Begins to participate largely in the political concerns of the colony, as shown by the return of Mr. Holland to the assembly from Schenectady, 188 The exact date of his wife's decease not known. Birth of a sou John Johnson, and of two daughters Mary and Nancy. Is rapidly gaining an ascendency over the Iroquois Confederacy. Manuscript letter from James Wilson to Johnson, 189 Comprehensive views of Shirley, 190^Coumrunicates them to the government of New York, 191 The duke of Newcastle's letter laid before the council, 192 Joyful reception of these communications by the legislature and people, 193 Inaction of the parent government, 196 Expedition against Quebec abandoned, 198 Activity of the French, 199 Alarm of the North American seaports on the approach of D'Anville's fleet, 200 Quari-el of Chief Justice Be Lancey with Governor Clinton. Causes which led to it, 2ul Governer Clinton arrives in Albany to meet the Six Nations. Finds very few Indians in attendance, 202 Rumors of a French expedition against Schenectady communicated to Clinton by Johnson. 204 Growing dis- affection of the Six Nations, 205 The Jesuits succeed in gaining over some of the chiefs, 206 Mr. Clinton avails himself, in the Indian department, of the services of Mr. Johnson. Qualifications of the latter for this branch of the public service, 207 Mr. Johnson exerts himself successfully in winning back the friendship of the Confederates. Pre- vails upon them to attend the council, 208 Is adopted by the Mohawks, and invested with the rank of a war chief, 209 Receives from the Mohawks an Indian name. Enters Albany at the head of a party of Mohawks, dressed and painted as a warrior, 210 Dr. Colden opens the council with a speech, 211 Reply of the Indians, 213 An alliance defensive and offensive formed with the Iroquois Confederacy, 216 Astonishing ignorance of Mr. Clinton in relation to affairs in New Eng- land, 217 Efforts of the Canadian governor to neutralize Mr. Clinton's proceedings, 218 The Caughnawagas, instigated by the French, vainly attempt to dissuade the Six Nations from their recent alliance, 219 Impossibility of the Iroquois Confederacy, from their geographical position, remaining neutral, 219.

CHAPTER VI.

1746. The Canadian Indians desolate the New England frontier, 221 Number Four. Upper Ashuelet and Bernardstown attacked, 222 Command of the posts west of Hoosick mountain confided to Captain Ephraim Williams, 224 Vaudreuil invests Fort Massachusetts, 225 Bravery of the garri- son, 226 Its capture, 227 Remarkable conduct of the Indians, 228 Active operations against Crown Point abandoned, 229 Mr. Johnson directed to organize war parties of Indians to harrass the French settlements, 230.— The preparations of the French for the reconquest of Cape Breton prove abortive, 232 Disasters to D'Anville's fleet, 233 Suicide of D'Estournelle, 234 Governor Clinton returns to New York. Dissatisfaction with the Indian commissioners. The manage- ment of the Indian department devolves chiefly upon Mr. Johnson,

/

CONTENTS. IX

235 Trouble between Governor Clinton and his assembly, 23G Henry Holland, by order of Colonel Roberts, breaks open the public store bouses in Albany, 238 The assembly urged to their opposition of the governor by De Lancey, 240 Holland declared guilty of a high misdemeanor, 241 Review of Holland's conduct, 242 The Sckuylers take offence at the growing influence of Johnson, 243 Johnson becomes contractor for supplying the Oswego garrison. First step taken toward the establish- ment of Kings, now Columbia college, 245 Mr. De Lancey makes another demonstration against his rival, Dr. Colden, 246 Johnson pays a visit to Governor Clinton in the autumn. Receives from the governor the rank of colonel. Is recommended by Clinton, through the duke of Newcastle, to his majesty's favor, 247 The operations of the New Eng- landers in Nova Scotia end disastrously. Inactivity of the enemy during the winter, 248.

CHAPTER VII.

1747. Shirley conceives the project of a descent upon Crown Point, 249 New York deems the plan impracticable, 250 Active correspondence between Clinton and Johnson in relation to the Indian service, 251 Exertions of Colonel Johnson, 254: Letter from Colonel Johnson to Governor Clinton, 255 Enumeration of scalps taken from the enemy, 257 Attack on Charlestown, N. H., 258 Raising of the seige, 260— Rebuilding of Fort Massachusetts, 261 Clinton again involved in controversies with his legislature, 262 Letter from Clinton to Johnson regarding the disloyalty of some Albanians, 266 Mutiny of the levies at Saratoga, 267 Report of the committee, charged with the preparation of an address to the governor, 273 The attention of the assembly called to the disaffection among the northern levies. Reply of the house, 274 Movements of Sir Peter Warren. Appointed second in command under M. Anson, 275 Is promoted to the rank of rear admiral of the white, 277 Meets with great success in his cruizes, and is returned to parliament, 278.

CHAPTER VIII.

1747. Military affairs in the north in a deplorable condition. Desertion of the troops. Murders by the enemy, 279 Captain Chew defeated near Lake Champlain by M. Lacose, and taken prisoner. Schuyler marches to repel the invaders, 280 The Six Nations complain to Schuyler. Clin- ton concerts measures with Schuyler for relieving Oswego. Governor Shirley meditates an attack upon Crown Point, 281 Clinton lays Shir- ley's plan before the assembly, 282 Is received coldly, 283 Activity of the enemy. Saratoga surrendered. Johnson writes to Clinton, 284 He demands a guard to escort the stores to Oswego, 286 The assembly refuse to allow them, 287 Letter from Clinton to Johnson, 288 High estimation in which Johnson was held by Clinton. Cause of Johnson's jealousy toward Lydius, 291 Johnson returns from an expedition against Crown Point. The fort at Saratoga in danger of being evacuated through want of provisions, 292 More trouble between Clinton and the assem- bly, 293 Colonel Roberts directed to send three companies to Saratoga, 294 Colonel Johnson visits New York to consult with the governor respecting tho condition of the colony. His advice, 295 Clinton and Shirley still cling to the expedition against Crown Point. The former again appeals to his legislature and dwells upon the views of Johnson, 296 The assembly respond coldly, 299 The assembly in secret sitting attack Colonel Johnson. Reasons for this attack, 301 Clinton charges the house with falsehood, and adverts to the services of Johnson in terms of high praise, 305 The hopes of the colonies fall to the ground. The duke of Newcastle orders Clinton and Shirley to desist from the

X CONTENTS.

intended expedition, 310 Trouble with James Parker, printer to the assembly, 311 -Clinton proposes to detail large bodies of the militia for the defence of the frontiers, 312 The assembly charge the governor with inconsistency, 314 Clinton again involved in controversies with the assembly on the question of prerogative, 315 He dissolves the assembly much to its surprise, 318 Review of the controversy, 320 Difficulty between Commodore Knowles and the citizens of Boston on the subject of press gangs. Shirley's house mobbed, 222 Order restored, 225 Governor Clinton presses the command of the northern frontier upon Colonel Johnson. The latter is entrusted with the duty of effecting a complete reorganization of the militia. All confidence reposed in him, 326.

CHAPTER IX. 1748. Prominence of Johnson in the affairs of the colony Accepts the command of the troops for the defence of the frontiers. Devotes himself to the management of the Indian department. Becomes favorably known to the colonial and British government. Employs as his housekeeper, Mol- ly Brant, 327. Beneficial effects of this Indian alliance, 328. New assembly chosen. The governor's opening speech conciliatory. Arent Stevens succeeds Mr. Bleeker, deceased, as government interpreter to the Indians, 329. The dissolution of the old assembly produces a better state of feeling in tbe new one. The answer of the council to the governor's speech moved by De Lancey, 330 Resolutions passed for repairing the fortifications along the frontiers. Robert Charles appointed agent for the colony, to reside in London with a salary of £200 per an- num, 331 The action of the assembly attributed to a desire to supplant Clinton in the gubernatorial chair by Sir Peter Warren. Warren not a party to this intrigue, 332 Discontent of the Six Nations. Alarming intelligence from Colonel Johnson and Lieutenant Lindesay of Oswego, 332 Colonel Johnson directed by Clinton to make a tour in the Indian country, 333 Objects to be attained by this tour, 334 Johnson sum- mons a council of the Confederacy at Onondaga. Arrives at the Onon- daga castle, and meets with a flattering reception, 335 Proceedings of Johnson at the council, 336 Communicates to the Indians, the intention of Clinton to meet them at Albany, 339 He recommends to the governor strong legislative enactments to prevent the sale of rum to the Indians, 341 A grand council of the Six Nations at Albany, long in contempla- tion by Clinton and Shirley, 341 Clinton's efforts to second Shirley's plan for an expedition against Crown Point fruitless, 342 Complains to the lords of trade of the continued encroachments of the assembly upon the crown. Lays before the assembly Colonel Johnson's report of the council at Onondaga, 343 Urges an immediate exchange of prisoners. The assembly recommends the sending of a flag of truce to Canada, 344 Colonel Beekman prefers a charge against the governor, 344 Important tidings received from Europe, 345 Letter from Clinton to Johnson, announcing that preliminaries of peace had been signed at Aix la Cha- pelle, 346 Clinton, accompanied by Dr. Colden, arrives in Albany to attend the grand council. Unprecedented number of Indians present, 348 Proceedings of the council not important, 349 Massacre at. Sche- nectady. No accurate account of it in existence, 350 General result of the council satisfactory, 353 Heart rending tragedy in the town of Hoosick, 354 The borders of Massachusetts and New Hampshire again suffer from the enemy, 361 Narrow escape of Captain Melvin and his party, 362 The enemy generally successful in these border skirmishes, 363 Captain Eph. Williams narrowly escapes capture, 364 Serious trouble among the troops stationed at Albany and along the frontiers. The commissioners refuse to execute the orders of the governor, 365

CONTENTS. XI

Complains of this in a letter to Colonel Johnson, determines to reassert the prerogative in the strongest terms, by bringing the supply-bill to a direct issue, 366 The assembly refuse to grant it, 368 Various succes- ses of the English fleet in the West Indies, 369 Definite treaty of peace signed at Aix la Chapelle. End of the old French war, 370 The Con- federates demand the release of their braves in Canada. Negotiations between Clinton and La Galissoniere in relation to the exchange, 371 Embassy of M. Francis Marie. Suspicions of Johnson, 372 Mutual dissatisfaction of all parties, 373.

CHAPTER X. 1749-1750.

Johnson is entrusted with the transfer of the prisoners. Success of his nego- tiations, 374 Apprehensions of the Mohawks artfully increased by La Galissoniere. Johnson writes Clinton upon the subject. Reply of the governor, 375 Johnson summons both of the Mohawk castles to a con- ference. Happy results, 376 Trouble between the Indians and a few Albany traders. Proclamation of the governor in regard to it, 377 General exchange of prisoners effected, 377 Remarkable energy of Colonel Johnson, 378 He thwarts all the plans of Galissoniere and his priests, 379 Encroachments of the French in Nova Scotia, 379 Colonel Johnson is appointed by the crown to a seat in his majesty's council for the province of New York, 380 This appointment, though unsought, by no means a surprise, 381 Wranglings between the governor and his assembly continue. The post at Oswego in danger of being given up. The assembly dissolved and writs issued for a new one, 382 The assembly allow Colonel Johnson part of the debt due him for provisioning the Oswego garrison, 383 Contemptible conduct of the assembly toward Johnson. Falsely charges him with peculation, 384 Resignation of Johnson as superintendent of Indian affairs. The step not entirely unexpected by Clinton, 385.

CHAPTER XI.

1750-1751. The peace of Aix la Chapelle received by the colonies with strong feelings of dissatisfaction, 386 Proves to be a peace only in name. Boundaries between the English and French possessions left undetermined, 387 The French occupy the valley of the Ohio. La Presentation founded by Rev. Abbe Piquet, 388 Sagacity of Picquet. La Presentation destroyed by Gage in 1757, 389 Jean Cceur, a French emissary, stirs up the Six Na- tions against the Catawbas. Johnson advises Clinton of the fact, 390 Clinton acting upon the suggestions of Johnson, summons the Confed- eracy to meet the Catawbas in Albany. Determines to have the ends of the council take a wider scope, and asks the different colonial governors to send delegates, 391 Johnson informs the Mohawks of the governor's intentions. The invitation of Thomas Lee of Virginia declined by the Six Nations, 392 Commissioners present at the council, 393 The Six Nations are grieved at the resignation of Colonel Johnson. They despatch a fleet runner for him, 394 Johnson arrives in Albany to attend the council. Is requested by Clinton to continue in the charge of the Indian department, but peremptorialy declines, 395 Is willing to render every assistance in an individual capacity, 396 Johnson takes the oaths of office as a councillor. Clinton opens the council, 396 Reply of the Confederates. Address of Mr. Bull, commissioner from South Carolinia, 397 Speech of the Catawba king to the Six Nations, 398 Treaty between the Six Nations and the Catawbas concluded, 400 Clinton lays before his council letters from Colonel Johnson and Captain Stoddard of a startling nature. Designs of the French upon Oswego, 402 Col Johnson sent down to the house by the council to demand cer-

Xll CONTENTS.

tain vouchers. They are refused, 403 Churlish treatment of the governor by the house, 404 Master stroke of policy on the part of Mr. Clinton, 405 The French plan farther encroachments upon the territory of New York. Meditate the establishment of a missionary and military post at Oswego. The design frustrated by Johnson. The council grant him Onondaga lake with the land around it for two miles in width. Otherwise than this his debt from the colony never paid, 406.

CHAPTER XII.

1752-1753.

Dawning of a new era in American literature, 407 Johnson indulges in literary pursuits, and sends to London for books, 408 Takes special interest in the intellectual culture of the Mohawk children. Becomes a prominent patron of the mission school at Stockbridge, 409 Places Joseph Brant under the charge of Dr. Eleazer Wheelock at Lebanon Ct,., 410 Closing years of Sir Peter Warren. His death announced to John- son in a letter from his brother Warren Johnson, 411 William Smith appointed to the seat at the council board, left vacant by Sir Peter War- ran's decease, 412 Principal features of the new assembly, 413 Clin- ton consults Colonel Johnson in the appointment of a new board of Indian commissioners, 414 Fees of Chief Justice De Lancey, 415 He ceases his opposition to the governor, 416 Difficulty in collecting the Oswego duties John De Peyster and Peter Schuyler Jr. charged with peculation. Johnson requested to sift the matter, 416 Makes his report, 417 Hostile Indians still hover along the northern frontier, A party of St. Francis Indians surprise and capture John Stark, after- ward the hero of Bennington, 418 Clinton's opening message to the assembly, 418 French again active, 419 Johnson apprised of the move- ments of the enemy. Alarm of the Six Nations, 420 Indian affairs sadly neglected since the resignation of Johnson. King Hendrik visits Clinton in New York. Complains bitterly of the frauds to which the Indians were subjected in the sale of their lands, 421 Reply of the governor. Disgust of Hendrik, 422 The general assembly request Clinton to send Johnson to Onondaga to pacify the Six Nations, 424 Johnson summons the Mohawks to Mount Johnson, 425 Sets out on his mission, 426 Conference at Onondaga attended with happy results, 427 Arrival of Sir Danvers Osborne as the successor of Governor Clinton, 428 Strange conduct of the new governor. He commits suicide. Sus- picions of foul play clearly without foundation, 429 Mr. De Lancey takes the reins of government, 430 His opening message to the assem- bly, 431 Change in the administration productive of one good result, 433 Death of Governor Clinton. His character, 434.

CHAPTER XIII. 1753-1754. Period reached when the active public life of Colonel Johnson begins, 436 Claims of England and France to the Ohio valley, 436 Formation of the Ohio company, 437 Christopher Gist sent to explore the country. Commissioners treat at Lcgstown with the Mingoes and Shawanese, 438 The French call to their aid the spiritual arm, 439 La Jonquere seizes the English traders. George Washington sent by Governor Dinwiddie to remonstrate with the French commander, 440 His reception by St. Pierre, 441 Mr. De Lancey informs the assembly of the encroachments of the French, 441 Niggardly spirit of the assembly, 442 The lieuten- ant governor answers the quibbles of the assembly and prorogues that body, 444 Virginia raises a regiment of six hundred men, 445 Wash- ington with his troops reaches Will's creek, 446 The fort at the Monon- gahela captured by Contrecceur, who names it Du Quesne, 447 Washing- ton is put on his guard by the half king, 447 Defeats De Jummville.

CONTENTS. Xlil

Builds a furl at the Great Meadows 'which he called Fort Necessity, 448 Surrenders Fort Necessity to De Villiors. The French loll iu undisputed possession of the basin of the Ohio, 449.

CHAPTER XIV. 1754.

Congress of commissioners assemble at Albany. Its object, 450 Colonies represented. Backwardness of the Six Nations in arriving. Jealousy of the Indian commissioners toward Johnson, 451 True cause of the reluctance of the Indians to attend the council. Lieutenant Governor De Lancey called to the chair, 452 Opening speech of De Lancey to the Indians, 453 King Hendrik replies, 454 The venerable Mohawk brave utters a scathing phillipic, 456 Speech of his bvother Abraham. Desires that Colonel Johnson may be reinstated. Biting irony of his speech, 456 Johnson prepares an answer, which is delivered by the lieutenant governor, 457 Johnson, at the request of the commissioners, submits a paper on the management of the Six Nations, 458 Measures urged by him, 459 Origin of the Wyoming lands, 4G0 The Con- necticut delegates purchase the lands of the Six Nations. Extent of the land thus purchased, 464 Plan of a general federal union taken into consideration, 465 Plan not adopted. Why it was not, 466 Savage hordes let loose upon the whole frontier. The storm bursts with all its fury, 467 Dutch Hoosic burned by Schaghticoke Indians. Vigorous measures of Shirley, 468 Captain Ephraim Williams given a command with the rank of major. De Lancey vies with Shirley in efficient pre- parations for defence, 469 The French meditate a descent upon the lower settlements. Johnson places the militia in a condition for efficient service. Difficulties between the militia and regulars at Schenectady, 470 De Lancey announces to the general assembly the defeat of Wash- ington at the Great Meadows, 471 Want of harmony in the assembly, 472 Origin of the famous college, controversy, 472 The church party writhe under the lash of William Livingstone, 474 Charter of the col- lege granted by Lieutenant Governor De Lancey. He and Johnson become warm friends, 475 Rev. Mr. Barclay resigns his post among the Mohawks for the rectorate of Trinity Church, 476 A fort on the Hudson river above Albany ordered to be built, 477 End of the college controversy, 478.

CHAPTER XV. 1755.

Vascillating course of the Newcastle ministry. Edward Braddock sent to America with two regiments, 479 Dieskau and Vaudreuil arrive at Quebec. Surrender of two French men-of-war. General assembly again convened, 480 Johnson arrives in New York to take his seat at the council board. Delivers to the lieutenant governor a letter from the Mohawks, 481 Shirley again agitates the question of a descent on Crown Point. Thomas Pownal sent as commissioner to New York. Meets with a cold reception, 482 Braddock calls a conference at Alex- andria. Four separate expeditions against the French planned, 483 Johnson receives the command of one of them, with the rank of major general. Form of his commission. Receives also the appointment of Indian affairs, 484 Summons the Confederacy to a grand council at Mount Johnson. Informs the Indians of the arrival of General Brad- dock, 485 The Confederacy, through Hendrik, express great satisfac- tion at his being" again raised up," 486 Johnson, by a stirring speech, persuades them to take up arms in favor of the English, 488 Shirley hastens to Boston to prepare for the expedition under his command, 489 The assembly of New York, urged by De Lancey, enter with alac- rity into the work of raising troops for Major General Johnson, 491)

XIV CONTENTS.

Conquest of Acadia, 491 Character of the Acadians, 492 Brutality of General Monckton, 498 Cruel fate of the Acadians, 494 Expedition of Braddock, 494 His defeat, 496 The half king at the solicitation of Johnson, offers his services to Braddock, and is refused, 497 The French prevail on several Indian tribes to take up the hatchet. Susquehannas and Catawbas remain faithful, 498 Shirley's expedition against Niagara, 498 It proves abortive, 490 All eyes turned to the expedition under Major General Johnson, 500.

CHAPTER XVI. 1755. The forces destined against Crown Point assemble at Albany. General Lyman is sent forward with the greater part of the troops. Johnsonl delayed by the leaky condition of the bateaux, 501 Difficulty between himself and Shirley. Shirley's conduct, 502 He is piqued at the seem- ing neglect shown to his position, 504 Johnson heals the dissensions sown among the Indians by Lydius. Arrives at the great carrying place, accompanied by Hendrik and Brant, 505 The New England troops burn to retrieve the disgrace of Braddock's defeat. General Lyman builds Fort Edward, 506 Johnson reaches Lake St. Sacrament, and names it Lake George. Is joined by Lyman, 507 His dissappointment at finding so few of the Six Nations at the lake. Hendrik attributes it to Shirley, 508 Johnson's plan of operations, 510 Movements of Dieskau. A courier sent out by Johnson killed by the enemy, 611 A council of war called. Hendrik's advice, 512 Dieskau arranges an ambuscade. Deaths of Hendrik and Williams, 513 The French fail to take advant- age of their first success. The attack on Johnson's camp begun by the French regulars, 514 Dieskau attempts to turn Johnson's right. He fails. Desperate fighting by the Provincials, 515 Utter route of the French. Dieskau, seriously wounded, is taken prisoner. Last words of Gardeur St. Pierre, 616 General Johnson receives a severe wound and is forced to re- tire to his tent. Captain Maginnis defeats the remnants of the French army at Rocky Brook, 517 Losses of the English and French. Singular histori- cal fact, not generally known, 517 Johnson sends circular letters to the colonial governors. His treatment of Shirley vindicated. The Indians return home, 518 Building of Fort William Henry. Want of alacrity shown by the New England troops, 519 Efforts of Johnson to allay all jealousy, 520 Favorable opinion of Johnson by a New England officer. Scouting parties, under Rogers, annoy the enemy in the vicinity of Crown Point. Johnson disbands his army and returns to Mount Johnson, 521 He is severely censured. Review of his conduct, 521 Manuscript letters now first brought to light, afford a complete vindication of his conduct, 523 He is created a Baronet of Great Brit- ain, and receives the thanks of parliament. Is greeted with an illumi- nation and a triumphal procession by the citizens of New York, 525 Summing up of the results of the battle of Lake George, 526.

CHAPTER XVII. 1755-1756. Sir Charles Hardy arrives in New York as the successor of Sir Danvers Osborne. His first message to the assembly, 530 Good feeling between the new governor and his legislature, 581 Hardy appoints a day of thanksgiving, and sets out for Albany to hasten the departure of the levies 582 Accomplishes little by the visit. Announces to the assembly Johnson's victory over Dieskau. Demands the settlement of a perma- nent revenue on a solid foundation. The assembly allude especially to the advantage gained by Johnson, 533 Governor Hardy's demand for a permanent support met with quiet indifference, 534— The St. Francis

CONTENTS. XV

Indians resume their incursions in the New Hampshire border, 535 Shirley, now commander-in-chief of the forces in America, arrives in New York and summons a grand congress of colonial governors, 536 Lays before it his plan for the next year's campaign, which meets with the general approval of the congress, 537 The assembly of New York look coldly upon the proposed expedition against Ticonderoga, and Shirley, in disgust, returns to Boston, 538 Tart correspondence between Johnson and Shirley, 538 The latter yields the point, 539 Johnson is appointed by the crown, "sole superintendent of the affairs of the

SIX NATIONS AND OTHER NORTHERN INDIANS, "540.

APPENDIX.

I. Letter from Colonel William L. Stone to the chiefs and warriors of the

Senecas, acknowledging his adoption as a chief of that nation, 541.

II. "A memorandum for trifles sent to London for through Captain Knox,"

by Sir William Johnson, 546.

III. Sketch of Colonel Ephraim Williams, 547.

IV. Sketch of King Hendrick, 549.

V. Sketch of Fort William Henry (engraving) 553.

VI. Manuscript letter ; Sir William Baker to Sir William Johnson, 554.

THE LIFE AND TIMES

SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON, BART.

CHAPTER I. 1534 1741.

The annalist is the narrator of events in exact order of chap. time : the biographer is a relator, not of the history of ^— v— * nations, but of the actions of particular persons : the office of the historian is to digest and record facts and events in a narrative style, but of yet greater security and dignity. Such, at least, should be the office of the writer who aspires to the more elevated walks of history. It is not intended that the present work shall be confined within the limits of either of the preceding definitions ; but rather that it shall to an humble extent, combine the characteristics of all. Were it strictly biographical, it would be in order to introduce the principal personage concerning whom it is written, upon the stage of action in his own proper per- son, at the outset. But, as the life of Sir William John- son was, for a long series of years, identified with the Indian history